Objective: To study the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic appearances of female genital tract tuberculosis (FGTB).
Study design: This is a hospital-based prospective observational study.
Materials and methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vardhman Laparoscopy Centre, from July 1, 2014 to June 31, 2017. A total of 2,200 patients presenting with infertility were subjected to endoscopic evaluation, and the findings suggestive of TB were recorded.
Results: Out of total 2,200 patients who underwent endoscopic evaluation for infertility, 33 and 21.5% had findings suggestive of TB on laparoscopy and hysteroscopy respectively, and 59.5 and 55.6% of these patients had laparoscopic and hysteroscopic findings of early-stage disease respectively.
Conclusion: Endoscopic evaluation of unexplained infertility is an indispensable tool for early diagnosis of FGTB and providing antitubercular treatment, while it is in the reversible stage.
Rajamaheswari N. Pelvic tuberculosis. Available from: www.Sunmed.org/pelvictb.html
Raut VS, Mahashur AA, Sheth SS. The Mantoux test in the diagnosis of genital tuberculosis in women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2001 Feb;72(2):165-169.
Technical and Operational Guidelines for TB Control in India. Chapter 3: Case finding and diagnostic strategy. New Delhi, India Central TB Division. Directorate General of Health Services Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2016.
Ali Al eryani A, Abdelrub AS, Al Harazi AH. Genital tuberculosis is common among females with tubal factor infertility: observational study. Alexandria J Med 2015 Dec;51(4):321-324.
Bapna N, Swarankar M, Kotia N. Genital tuberculosis and its consequences on subsequent fertility. J Obstet Gynecol India 2005 Nov-Dec;55(6):534-537.
Agarwal S, Chauhan J, Vachhani A, Ahir K. A study on corelation of infertility and female genital tuberculosis. Natl J Med Res 2016;6(2):151-154.
Sharma JB, Roy KK, Pushparaj M, Kumar S, Malhotra N, Mittal S. Laparoscopic findings in female genital tuberculosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2008 Oct;278(4):359-364.
Sharma JB, Naha M, Kumar S, Roy KK, Singh N, Arora R. Genital TB—an important cause of ectopic pregnancy in India. Indian J Tuberc 2014 Oct;61(4):312-317.
Kola MZ. Prosthodontic management of Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome with special focus on its characterization and diagnosis: a clinical report. J Adv Med Dent Sci Res 2014 Oct-Dec;2(4):97-104.
Kundu S, Zahir S: Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome: a case report. OMPJ 2012 Jul-Dec;3(2):269-272.
Pavankumar K. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome: a case report. Saudi Dent J 2010 Apr;22(2):95-98.
Nickles K, Schacher B, Schuster G, Valesky E, Eickholz P. Evaluation of two siblings with Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome 5 years after treatment of periodontitis in primary and mixed dentition. J Periodontol 2011 Nov;82(11):1536-1547.
Vassilopoulou A, Laskaris G. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome: report of two brothers. ASDC J Dent Child 1989 Sep- Oct;56(5):388-391.
Kaya FA, Polat ZS, Baran EA, Tekin GG. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome-3 years follow up: a case report. Int Dent Med Disord 2008 Dec;1(1):24-28.
Rathi SK. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome in two brothers. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2002 May-Jun;68(3):155-156.
Toomes C, James J, Wood AJ, Wu CL, McCormick D, Lench N, Hewitt C, Moynihan L, Roberts E, Woods CG, et al. Loss-offunction mutations in the cathepsin C gene result in periodontal disease and palmoplantar keratosis. Nat Genet 1999 Dec;23(4):421-424.
Ryu OH, Choi SJ, Firatli E, Choi SW, Hart PS, Shen RF, Wang G, Wu WW, Hart TC. Proteolysis of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha isoforms LD78beta and LD78alpha by neutrophil-derived serine-proteases. J Biol Chem 2005 Apr;280(17):17415-17421.
Jain V, Gupta R, Parkash H. Prosthodontic rehabilitation in Papillon Lefevre syndrome: a case report. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005;23:96-98.
Dhanawade SS, Shah SD, Kakade GM. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome with liver abscess. Indian Pediatr 2009 Aug;46(8):723-725.
Ahmad M, Hassan I, Masood Q. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome. J Dermatol Case Rep 2009 Dec;3(4):53-55.
Vallejos-Sanchez AA, Medina-Solís CE, Maupome G, CasanovaRosado JF, Minaya-Sanchez M, Villalobos-Rodelo JJ, Pontigo-Loyola AP. Sociobehavioral factors influencing tooth brushing frequency among school children. J Am Dent Assoc 2008 Jun;139(6):743-749.
Pullishery F, Panchmal GS, Shenoy R. Parental attitudes and tooth brushing habits in preschool children in Mangalore, Karnataka: a cross-sectional study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013 Dec;6(3):156-160.
Carolina Martins CC, Oliveira MJ, Pordeus IA, Paiva SM. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers. BMC Oral Health 2011 Sep;11:22.
Vaitkeviciene V, Milciuviene S, Zaborskis A. Oral hygiene of preschool children in Kaunas city and their parents’ attitude towards children's oral health. Medicina (Kaunas) 2005 Feb;41(5):427-434.
FernandaTrindade FA, Valente AR, Andrade MR, Tannure PN, Antonio AG, da Silva Fidalgo TK. Knowledge and practices of parents and guardians regarding the oral health of children from a shelter and a University in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Brazil Res Pediatr Dent Integr Clin 2014 Dec;14(4):293-302.
Silver DH. A comparison of 3-year-olds’ caries experience in 1973, 1981 and 1989 in a Hertfordshire town, related to family behaviour and social class. Br Dent J 1992 Mar;172(5):191-197.
Kodali VR. The interface of nutrition and dentition. Indian J Pediatr 1998;65:529-539.
Leroy R, Bogaerts K, Lasaffre E, Declerck D. The emergence of permanent teeth in Flemish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003;31:30-39.
Knott VB, Meredith HV. Statistics on eruption of the permanent dentition from serial data for North American white children. Angle Orthod 1966;36:68-79.
Krumholt L, Roed-Petersen B, Bindborg JJ. Eruption times of the permanent teeth in 622 Ugandan children. Arch Oral Biol 1971 Nov;16(11):1281-1288.
Stones HH, Lawton FE, Bransby ER, Hartley HO. Time of eruption of permanent teeth and time of shedding of deciduous teeth. Br Dent J 1951 Jan 2;90(1):1-7.
Nanda RS. Eruption of human teeth. Am J Orthod 1960;46:363.
Eveleth PB, de Freites JA. Tooth eruption and menarche of Brazilian born of Japanese ancestry. Hum Biol 1969 May;41(2): 176-184.
Hassanali J, Odhimbo JW. Age of eruption of the permanent teeth in Kenyan African and Asian children. Ann Hum Biol 1981 Sep-Oct;8(5):425-434.
Shourie KL. Eruption age of teeth in India. Indian J Med Res 1946 May;34:105-118.
Kaul S, Saini S, Saxena B. Emergency of permanent teeth in school children in Chandigarh, India. Arch Oral Biol 1975 Sep;20(9):587-593.
Kaur B, Singh R. Physical growth and age at eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth in well nourished Indian girls from birth to twenty years. Am J Hum Biol 1992;4(6):757-766.
Boesen P, Eriksen JH, Helm S. Timing of permanent tooth emergence in two Greenland Eskimo populations. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1976 Nov;4(6):244-247.
Nystrom M, Kujala EK, Evalahti M, Peck L, Kataja M. Emergence of permanent teeth and dental age in a series of Finns. Acta Odontol Scand 2001 Apr;59(2):49-56.
Folayan M, Owotade F, Adejuyigbe E, Sen S, Lawal B, Ndukwe K. The timing of eruption of the primary dentition in Nigerian children. Am J Phys Anthopol 2007 Dec;134(4): 443-448.
Feraru IV, Raducanu AM, Feraru SM, Herteliu C. The sequence and chronology of the eruption of permanent canines and premolars in a group of Romanian children in Bucharest. OHMD 2011;10(4):193-198.
Singh S, Sharma A, Sandhu N, Mehta K. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in school going children of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian J Dent Res 2016 May-Jun;27(3):317-322.
Amado JN, Sierraa AM, Gallon A, Alvarez C, Baccettic T. Relationship between personality traits and cooperation of adolescent orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod 2008 Jul;78(4):688-691.
Ansai T, Miyazaki H, Katoh Y, Yamashita Y, Takehara T, Jenny J, Cons NC. Prevalence of malocclusion in high school students in Japan according to the dental aesthetic index. Comm Dent Oral Epidemiolol 1993 Oct;21(5):303-305.
Danaei SM, Amirrad F, Salehi P. Orthodontic treatment needs of 12- 15 year old students in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):326-334.
Onyeaso CO, BeGole EA, Orthodontic treatment need in an accredited orthodontic centre in North America: a pilot study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2006 May;7(2):87-94.
Onyeaso CO, Sanu OO. Perception of personal dental appearance in Nigeria adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2005 Jun;127(6):700-706.
Onyeaso CO. Orthodontic concern of parents compared with orthodontic treatment need assessed by Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) in Ibaden, Nigeria. Odontostomatol Trop 2003 Mar;26(101):13-20.
Naveen Kumar B, Mohapatra A, Ramesh N, Ravishankar TL. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 12-15 years old school children in Davangere, Karnataka, India. Pak Oral Dent J 2010;30(1):181-185.
de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A. The relationship between normative orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003 Dec;31(6):426-436.
de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A, Tsakos G, O'Brien KD. Oral health related quality of life and the IOTN index as predictors of children's perceived needs and acceptance for orthodontic treatment. Br Dent J 2008 Apr;204(7):1-5.
Al-Sarheed M, Bedi R, Hunt NP. Orthodontic treatment need and self perception of 11-16 year old Saudi Arabian children with a sensory impairment attending special schools. J Orthod 2003 Mar;30(1):39-44.
Kerosuo H, Al Enezi S, Kerosuo E, Abdulkarim E. Association between normative and self perceived orthodontic treatment need among Arab high school students. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Mar;125(3):373-378.
Ghijselings I, Brosens V, Williams G, Fieuws S, Clijmans M, Lemiere J. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need in 11- to 16-year-old children. Eur J Orthod 2014 Apr;36(2):179-185.
Onyeaso CO, Arowojolu MO. Perceived, desired and normatively determined treatment need among orthodontically untreated Nigerian adolescents. West Afr J Med 2003 Jan- Mar;22(1):5-9.
Jung MH. Quality of life and self-esteem of female orthognathic surgery patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 Jun;74(6):1240.e1-1240.e7.
Abu Alhaija ES, Al-Nimri KS, Al-Khateeb SN. Self perception of malocclusion among Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):292-295.
Kolawole KA, Otuyemi DE, Jebode SO, Unweni AA. Awareness for malocclusion and desire for orthodontic treatment need in 11-14year old Nigerian school and their parents. Aust Orthod J 2008 May;24(1):21-25.
Cucalon A 3rd, Smith RJ. Relationship between by adolescent orthodontics patients and performance on psychological tests. Angle Orthod 1990 Summer;60(2):107-114.
Southard KA, Tolley EA, Arheart KL, Hackett-Renner CA, Southard TE. Application of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory in evaluating orthodontic compliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991 Dec;100(6):553-561.
Kharbanda OP. What is the prevalence of malocclusion in India? Do we know orthodontic treatment needs of our country. J Indian Orthod Soc 1999 Apr-Jun;32(2):33-41.
Siddiqui TA, Shaikh A, Fida M. Agreement between orthodontist and patient perception using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Saudi Dent J 2014 Oct;26(4):156-165.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. Orthodontic treatment needs in an urban Iranian population in epidemiological study of 11-14 years old children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2009 Jun;10(2):69-74.
Grando G, Young AA, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 2008 Summer;19(2):13-16.
Nadim R, Aslam K, Rizwan S. Frequency of malocclusion among 12 -15 years old school children in three sectors of Karachi. Pak Oral Dent J 2014 Sep;34(3):510-514.
Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old Nalgonda school children. J Int Oral Health 2013 Dec;5(6): 49-54.
Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Nov;126(5):604-607.
Kaur H, Pavithra US, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013 Jul-Dec;3(2):97-102.
Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod 2003 Jun;25(3):273-278.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.